Districts of Innovation and Special Zones.

Districts of Innovation in the metropolis are the geographical areas where they are leading companies, research institutions, business startups and business incubators. Globally, Barcelona, ​​Berlin, London, Medellin, Montreal, Seoul, Stockholm and Toronto contain examples of districts in evolution. In the United States, districts are emerging about institutions anchoring in city centers and midtowns of cities like Atlanta, Baltimore, Buffalo, Cambridge, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, St. Louis and San Diego. They are developing in Boston, Brooklyn, Chicago, Portland, San Francisco and Seattle, where the areas (in particular, the oldest industrial areas) are being underused re-imagined and remade.

On the subject of innovation, we should mention the States of New Jersey, California, Illinois, Georgia. On the other hand, the United Kingdom, France, Finland, Germany, Sweden are the countries of Europe that host more scientific and technology parks that demonstrate their commitment to develop special zones for economic development. Research centers on smart city are not many but we have identified the IESE business school of the University of Navarra, the Senseable CityLab MIT, the research center of EHT Zurich, the observatory of Internet of Things, the Institute Fraunhofer Fokus which are the main source of generation of knowledge and technologies for improving urban cities with innovation.

Research for special areas and / or urban development enterprise high technologies take into account the following definitions of clusters considering that has not found a harmonized global database:
* Technological Parks in the field of ICT / Energy / Transport.
* International Clusters.
* Business Improvement District.
* Special areas as “High-Tech Zones”, “Comprehensive Development Zones”, “Enterprise communities”, “Urban Enterprise Zones” Districts of innovation among others.

Some highlights in Latin America are: Route N in Medellin, Mexico City with Prosoftware, Cluster of the content industry in Bogota, City of Knowledge of Panama, Porto Digital Leve in Porto Alegre, Technology District of Buenos Aires, PIIT of Monterrey or Guadalajara Digital Creative City etc.


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